"Seventy weeks [sevens] are decreed about your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place [one]." Daniel 9:24The "seventy sevens" of Daniel are a matter of much confusion and debate. However rather than shy away from this difficult passage, I think it has an important message.
One obvious interpretation is that the "weeks" or "sevens" represent seven years. As Daniel was prophesying around 500 years before the birth of Christ, and 7 times 70 is 490, this is not insignificant. In fact if you pick out the important points from the passage, you see that Daniel is given a message from the angel Gabriel concerning the coming of an anointed one who will put an end to sin and fulfil all prophecy. It's not too difficult to join the dots and work out that he is being told about Jesus!
However as with most prophetic numbers in scripture the importance is not so much the exact numeric value as the meanings behind the numbers.
Context too is very important. It is significant that Daniel's answer about the "seventy sevens" is given in response to a question and a prayer concerning one "seventy."
"In the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, perceived in the books the number of years that, according to the word of the Lord to Jeremiah the prophet, must pass before the end of the desolations of Jerusalem, namely, seventy years." Dan 9:2Daniel asked a question of God concerning one seventy - that represented the restoration of the Jewish people from exile in Babylon. God answered this question, but went much further, talking about not just the one seventy, but a seven times seventy, a fullness of restoration that would be not just for one ethnic group but a restoration of all peoples from their captivity to sin. The anointed one who would come would not just fulfil Jeremiah's prophecy, but all the prophecies of scripture!
How often are our questions of God too small? We are concerned about our own blessings and prosperity when God wants to lift our eyes to see how we fit into his big plan for the whole world, that the blessings we have in Christ might be a blessing for all those around us.
Next, it is important to let scripture interpret itself. Seventy sevens is a theme that has been introduced before.
Lamech said to his wives:This Old Testament motif of vengeance, is the same that Jesus takes and transforms to represent a fullness of forgiveness.
“Adah and Zillah, hear my voice;you wives of Lamech, listen to what I say:I have killed a man for wounding me,a young man for striking me.then Lamech's is seventy-sevenfold.” Gen 4:23-24
Then Peter came up and said to him, “Lord, how often will my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? As many as seven times?” Jesus said to him, “I do not say to you seven times, but seventy-seven times.” Mt 18:21-22It is in Christ that the seventy sevens are fulfilled and the judgement of God that kept all men exiles in sin is transformed by the cross to be a means of forgiveness and restoration for all peoples to restore the relationship with God.
Since we have received such a great forgiveness let us not go back to the old way of vengeance and unforgiveness against our brothers. But forgive in the same measure that we have been forgiven.
Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honourable in the sight of all. If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all. Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.” To the contrary, “if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink; for by so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.” Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. Ro 12:17-21